OverviewTeaching: 30 min
Exercises: 0 minQuestions
How can I define new functions?
What’s the difference between defining and calling a function?
What happens when I call a function?Objectives
Define a function that takes parameters.
Return a value from a function.
Test and debug a function.
Set default values for function parameters.
Explain why we should divide programs into small, single-purpose functions.
At this point,
we’ve written code to draw some interesting features in our inflammation data,
loop over all our data files to quickly draw these plots for each of them,
and have Python make decisions based on what it sees in our data.
But, our code is getting pretty long and complicated;
what if we had thousands of datasets,
and didn’t want to generate a figure for every single one?
Commenting out the figure-drawing code is a nuisance.
Also, what if we want to use that code again,
on a different dataset or at a different point in our program?
Cutting and pasting it is going to make our code get very long and very repetitive,
We’d like a way to package our code so that it is easier to reuse,
and Python provides for this by letting us define things called ‘functions’ —
a shorthand way of re-executing longer pieces of code.
Let’s start by defining a function
fahr_to_celsius that converts temperatures
from Fahrenheit to Celsius:
def fahr_to_celsius(temp): return ((temp - 32) * (5/9))
The function definition opens with the keyword
def followed by the
name of the function (
fahr_to_celsius) and a parenthesized list of parameter names (
body of the function — the
statements that are executed when it runs — is indented below the
definition line. The body concludes with a
return keyword followed by the return value.
When we call the function, the values we pass to it are assigned to those variables so that we can use them inside the function. Inside the function, we use a return statement to send a result back to whoever asked for it.
Let’s try running our function.
This command should call our function, using “32” as the input and return the function value.
In fact, calling our own function is no different from calling any other function:
print('freezing point of water:', fahr_to_celsius(32), 'C') print('boiling point of water:', fahr_to_celsius(212), 'C')
freezing point of water: 0.0 C boiling point of water: 100.0 C
We’ve successfully called the function that we defined, and we have access to the value that we returned.
Now that we’ve seen how to turn Fahrenheit into Celsius, we can also write the function to turn Celsius into Kelvin:
def celsius_to_kelvin(temp_c): return temp_c + 273.15 print('freezing point of water in Kelvin:', celsius_to_kelvin(0.))
freezing point of water in Kelvin: 273.15
What about converting Fahrenheit to Kelvin? We could write out the formula, but we don’t need to. Instead, we can compose the two functions we have already created:
def fahr_to_kelvin(temp_f): temp_c = fahr_to_celsius(temp_f) temp_k = celsius_to_kelvin(temp_c) return temp_k print('boiling point of water in Kelvin:', fahr_to_kelvin(212.0))
boiling point of water in Kelvin: 373.15
This is our first taste of how larger programs are built: we define basic operations, then combine them in ever-larger chunks to get the effect we want. Real-life functions will usually be larger than the ones shown here — typically half a dozen to a few dozen lines — but they shouldn’t ever be much longer than that, or the next person who reads it won’t be able to understand what’s going on.
In composing our temperature conversion functions, we created variables inside of those functions,
We refer to these variables as local variables
because they no longer exist once the function is done executing.
If we try to access their values outside of the function, we will encounter an error:
print('Again, temperature in Kelvin was:', temp_k)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------- NameError Traceback (most recent call last) <ipython-input-1-eed2471d229b> in <module> ----> 1 print('Again, temperature in Kelvin was:', temp_k) NameError: name 'temp_k' is not defined
If you want to reuse the temperature in Kelvin after you have calculated it with
you can store the result of the function call in a variable:
temp_kelvin = fahr_to_kelvin(212.0) print('temperature in Kelvin was:', temp_kelvin)
temperature in Kelvin was: 373.15
temp_kelvin, being defined outside any function,
is said to be global.
Inside a function, one can read the value of such global variables:
def print_temperatures(): print('temperature in Fahrenheit was:', temp_fahr) print('temperature in Kelvin was:', temp_kelvin) temp_fahr = 212.0 temp_kelvin = fahr_to_kelvin(temp_fahr) print_temperatures()
temperature in Fahrenheit was: 212.0 temperature in Kelvin was: 373.15
Now that we know how to wrap bits of code up in functions,
we can make our inflammation analysis easier to read and easier to reuse.
First, let’s make a
visualize function that generates our plots:
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt def visualize(filename): data = pd.read_csv(filename, index_col='country') fig = plt.figure() fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(12.0, 5.0)) data.columns = data.columns.str.strip('gdpPercap_') ax.set_ylabel(data.index) ax.plot(data.loc[data.index]) ax.set_ylabel(data.index) ax.plot(data.loc[data.index]) fig.tight_layout() plt.show()
Wait! Didn’t we forget to specify what both of these functions should return? Well, we didn’t.
In Python, functions are not required to include a
return statement and can be used for
the sole purpose of grouping together pieces of code that conceptually do one thing. In such cases,
function names usually describe what they do, e.g.
Notice that rather than jumbling this code together in one giant
we can now read and reuse both ideas separately.
We can reproduce the previous analysis with a much simpler
filenames = sorted(glob.glob('data/gapminder_gdp_a[fs]*.csv')) for filename in filenames: print(filename) visualize(filename)
By giving our functions human-readable names,
we can more easily read and understand what is happening in the
Even better, if at some later date we want to use either of those pieces of code again,
we can do so in a single line.
Consider these two functions:
def s(p): a = 0 for v in p: a += v m = a / len(p) d = 0 for v in p: d += (v - m) * (v - m) return numpy.sqrt(d / (len(p) - 1)) def std_dev(sample): sample_sum = 0 for value in sample: sample_sum += value sample_mean = sample_sum / len(sample) sum_squared_devs = 0 for value in sample: sum_squared_devs += (value - sample_mean) * (value - sample_mean) return numpy.sqrt(sum_squared_devs / (len(sample) - 1))
std_dev are computationally equivalent (they
both calculate the sample standard deviation), but to a human reader,
they look very different. You probably found
std_dev much easier to
read and understand than
As this example illustrates, both documentation and a programmer’s coding style combine to determine how easy it is for others to read and understand the programmer’s code. Choosing meaningful variable names and using blank spaces to break the code into logical “chunks” are helpful techniques for producing readable code. This is useful not only for sharing code with others, but also for the original programmer. If you need to revisit code that you wrote months ago and haven’t thought about since then, you will appreciate the value of readable code!
“Adding” two strings produces their concatenation:
'a' + 'b'is
'ab'. Write a function called
fencethat takes two parameters called
wrapperand returns a new string that has the wrapper character at the beginning and end of the original. A call to your function should look like this:
def fence(original, wrapper): return wrapper + original + wrapper
Return versus print
returnstatement, on the other hand, makes data visible to the program. Let’s have a look at the following function:
def add(a, b): print(a + b)
Question: What will we see if we execute the following commands?
A = add(7, 3) print(A)
Python will first execute the function
a = 7and
b = 3, and, therefore, print
10. However, because function
adddoes not have a line that starts with
return“statement”), it will, by default, return nothing which, in Python world, is called
Awill be assigned to
Noneand the last line (
print(A)) will print
None. As a result, we will see:
Selecting Characters From Strings
If the variable
srefers to a string, then
sis the string’s first character and
s[-1]is its last. Write a function called
outerthat returns a string made up of just the first and last characters of its input. A call to your function should look like this:
def outer(input_string): return input_string + input_string[-1]
Rescaling an Array
Write a function
rescalethat takes an array as input and returns a corresponding array of values scaled to lie in the range 0.0 to 1.0. (Hint: If
Hare the lowest and highest values in the original array, then the replacement for a value
(v-L) / (H-L).)
def rescale(input_array): L = numpy.min(input_array) H = numpy.max(input_array) output_array = (input_array - L) / (H - L) return output_array
Testing and Documenting Your Function
Run the commands
help(numpy.linspace)to see how to use these functions to generate regularly-spaced values, then use those values to test your
rescalefunction. Once you’ve successfully tested your function, add a docstring that explains what it does.
"""Takes an array as input, and returns a corresponding array scaled so that 0 corresponds to the minimum and 1 to the maximum value of the input array. Examples: >>> rescale(numpy.arange(10.0)) array([ 0. , 0.11111111, 0.22222222, 0.33333333, 0.44444444, 0.55555556, 0.66666667, 0.77777778, 0.88888889, 1. ]) >>> rescale(numpy.linspace(0, 100, 5)) array([ 0. , 0.25, 0.5 , 0.75, 1. ]) """
rescalefunction so that it scales data to lie between
1.0by default, but will allow the caller to specify lower and upper bounds if they want. Compare your implementation to your neighbor’s: do the two functions always behave the same way?
def rescale(input_array, low_val=0.0, high_val=1.0): """rescales input array values to lie between low_val and high_val""" L = numpy.min(input_array) H = numpy.max(input_array) intermed_array = (input_array - L) / (H - L) output_array = intermed_array * (high_val - low_val) + low_val return output_array
Variables Inside and Outside Functions
What does the following piece of code display when run — and why?
f = 0 k = 0 def f2k(f): k = ((f - 32) * (5.0 / 9.0)) + 273.15 return k print(f2k(8)) print(f2k(41)) print(f2k(32)) print(k)
259.81666666666666 278.15 273.15 0
kis 0 because the
kinside the function
f2kdoesn’t know about the
kdefined outside the function. When the
f2kfunction is called, it creates a local variable
k. The function does not return any values and does not alter
koutside of its local copy. Therefore the original value of
kremains unchanged. Beware that a local
kis created because
f2kinternal statements affect a new value to it. If
read, it would simply retreive the global
Mixing Default and Non-Default Parameters
Given the following code:
def numbers(one, two=2, three, four=4): n = str(one) + str(two) + str(three) + str(four) return n print(numbers(1, three=3))
what do you expect will be printed? What is actually printed? What rule do you think Python is following?
Given that, what does the following piece of code display when run?
def func(a, b=3, c=6): print('a: ', a, 'b: ', b, 'c:', c) func(-1, 2)
a: b: 3 c: 6
a: -1 b: 3 c: 6
a: -1 b: 2 c: 6
a: b: -1 c: 2
Attempting to define the
numbersfunction results in
4. SyntaxError. The defined parameters
fourare given default values. Because
threeare not given default values, they are required to be included as arguments when the function is called and must be placed before any parameters that have default values in the function definition.
The given call to
a: -1 b: 2 c: 6. -1 is assigned to the first parameter
a, 2 is assigned to the next parameter
cis not passed a value, so it uses its default value 6.
Revise a function you wrote for one of the previous exercises to try to make the code more readable. Then, collaborate with one of your neighbors to critique each other’s functions and discuss how your function implementations could be further improved to make them more readable.
Define a function using
The body of a function must be indented.
Call a function using
Numbers are stored as integers or floating-point numbers.
Variables defined within a function can only be seen and used within the body of the function.
Variables created outside of any function are called global variables.
Within a function, we can access global variables.
Variables created within a function override global variables if their names match.
help(thing)to view help for something.
Put docstrings in functions to provide help for that function.
Specify default values for parameters when defining a function using
name=valuein the parameter list.
Parameters can be passed by matching based on name, by position, or by omitting them (in which case the default value is used).
Put code whose parameters change frequently in a function, then call it with different parameter values to customize its behavior.