First session with GAP


Teaching: 30 min
Exercises: 10 min
  • Working with the GAP command line

  • Time-saving tips and tricks

  • Using GAP’s help system

  • Basic objects and constructions in the GAP language

If GAP is installed correctly you should be able to start it. Exactly how you start GAP will depend on your operating system and how you installed GAP. GAP starts with the banner displaying information about the version of the system and loaded components, and then displays the command line prompt gap>, for example:

 ┌───────┐   GAP 4.9.2 of 04-Jul-2018
 │  GAP  │
 └───────┘   Architecture: x86_64-apple-darwin16.7.0-default64
 Configuration:  gmp 6.1.2, readline
 Loading the library and packages ...
 Packages:   AClib 1.3, Alnuth 3.1.0, AtlasRep 1.5.1, AutPGrp 1.9, 
             Browse 1.8.8, CRISP 1.4.4, Cryst 4.1.17, CrystCat 1.1.8, 
             CTblLib 1.2.2, FactInt 1.6.2, FGA 1.4.0, GAPDoc 1.6.1, IO 4.5.1, 
             IRREDSOL 1.4, LAGUNA 3.9.0, Polenta 1.3.8, Polycyclic 2.14, 
             PrimGrp 3.3.1, RadiRoot 2.8, ResClasses 4.7.1, SmallGrp 1.3, 
             Sophus 1.24, SpinSym 1.5, TomLib 1.2.6, TransGrp 2.0.2, 
             utils 0.54
 Try '??help' for help. See also '?copyright', '?cite' and '?authors'

To leave GAP, type quit; at the GAP prompt. Remember that all GAP commands, including this one, must be finished with a semicolon! Practice entering quit; to leave GAP, and then starting a new GAP session. Before continuing, you may wish to enter the following command to display GAP prompts and user inputs in different colours:


The easiest way to start trying GAP out is as a calculator:

( 1 + 2^32 ) / (1 - 2*3*107 );

If you want to record what you did in a GAP session, so you can look over it later, you can enable logging with the LogTo function, like this.


This will create a file file gap-intro.log in the current directory which will contain all subsequent input and output that appears on your terminal. To stop logging, you can call LogTo without arguments, as in LogTo();, or leave GAP. Note that LogTo blanks the file before starting, if it already exists!

It can be useful to leave some comments in the log file in case you return to it in the future. A comment in GAP starts with the symbol # and continues to the end of the line. You can enter the following after the GAP prompt:

# GAP Software Carpentry Lesson

then after pressing the Return key, GAP will display a new prompt but the comment will be written to the log file.

The log file records all interaction with GAP that happens after the call to LogTo, but not before. We can repeat our calculation from above if we want to record it as well. Instead of retyping it, we will use the Up and Down arrow keys to scroll the command line history. Repeat this until you see the formula again, then press Return (the location of the cursor in the command line does not matter):

( 1 + 2^32 ) / (1 - 2*3*107 );

You can also edit existing commands. Press Up once more, and then use the Left and Right arrow keys, Delete or Backspace to edit it and replace 32 by 64 (some other useful shortcuts are Ctrl-A and Ctrl-E to move the cursor to the beginning and end of the line, respectively). Now press the Return key (at any position of the cursor in the command line):

( 1 + 2^64 ) / (1 - 2*3*107 );

It is useful to know that if the command line history is long, one could perform a partial search by typing the initial part of the command and using Up and Down arrow keys after that, to scroll only the lines that begin with the same string.

If you want to store a value for later use, you can assign it to a name using :=

universe := 6*7;

:=, = and <>

  • In other languages you might be more familiar with using =, to assign variables, but GAP uses :=.

  • GAP uses = to compare if two things are the same (where other languages might use ==).

  • Finally, GAP uses <> to check if two things are not equal (rather than the != you might have seen before).

Whitespace characters (i.e. Spaces, Tabs and Returns) are insignificant in GAP, except if they occur inside a string. For example, the previous input could be typed without spaces:


Whitespace symbols are often used to format more complicated commands for better readability. For example, the following input which creates a 3×3 matrix:

[ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 4, 5, 6 ], [ 7, 8, 9 ] ]

We can instead write our matrix over 3 lines. In this case, instead of the full prompt gap>, a partial prompt > will be displayed until the user finishes the input with a semicolon:

gap> m:=[[ 1, 2, 3 ],
>        [ 4, 5, 6 ],
>        [ 7, 8, 9 ]];
[ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 4, 5, 6 ], [ 7, 8, 9 ] ]

You can use Display to pretty-print variables, including this matrix:

[ [  1,  2,  3 ],
  [  4,  5,  6 ],
  [  7,  8,  9 ] ]

In general GAP functions like LogTo and Display are called using brackets, which contain a (possibly empty) list of arguments.

Functions are also GAP objects

Check what happens if you forget to add brackets, e.g. type LogTo; and Factorial; We will explain the differences in these outputs later.

Here are some examples of calling other GAP functions:


(the exact width of output will depend on your terminal settings),



[ 3, 5, 17, 257, 641, 65537, 6700417 ]

Functions may be combined in various ways, and may be used as arguments of other functions, for example, the Filtered function takes a list and a function, returning all elements of the list which satisfy the function. IsEvenInt, unsurprisingly, checks if an integer is even!

Filtered( [2,9,6,3,4,5], IsEvenInt);
[ 2, 6, 4 ]

A useful time-saving feature of the GAP command-line interfaces is completion of identifiers when the Tab key is pressed. For example, type Fib and then press the Tab key to complete the input to Fibonacci:


In the case that a unique completion is not possible, GAP will try to perform partial completion, and pressing the Tab key second time will display all possible completions of the identifier. Try, for example, to enter GroupHomomorphismByImages or NaturalHomomorphismByNormalSubgroup using completion.

The way functions are named in GAP will hopefully help you to memorise or even guess names of library functions. If a variable name consists of several words then the first letter of each word is capitalised (remember that GAP is case-sensitive!). Further details on naming conventions used in GAP are documented in the GAP manual here. Functions with names in ALL_CAPITAL_LETTERS are internal functions not intended for general use. Use them with extreme care!

It is important to remember that GAP is case-sensitive. For example, the following input causes an error:

Error, Variable: 'factorial' must have a value
not in any function at line 14 of *stdin*

because the name of the GAP library function is Factorial. Using lowercase instead of uppercase or vice versa also affects name completion.

Now let’s consider the following problem: for a finite group G, calculate the average order of its elements (that is, the sum of orders of its elements divided by the order of the group). Where to start?

Enter ?Group, and you will see all help entries, starting with Group:

│   Choose an entry to view, 'q' for none (or use ?<nr> later):                │
│[1]    AutoDoc (not loaded): @Group                                           │
│[2]    loops (not loaded): group                                              │
│[3]    polycyclic: Group                                                      │
│[4]    RCWA (not loaded): Group                                               │
│[5]    Tutorial: Groups and Homomorphisms                                     │
│[6]    Tutorial: Group Homomorphisms by Images                                │
│[7]    Tutorial: group general mapping                                        │
│[8]    Tutorial: GroupHomomorphismByImages vs. GroupGeneralMappingByImages    │
│[9]    Tutorial: group general mapping single-valued                          │
│[10]   Tutorial: group general mapping total                                  │
│[11]   Reference: Groups                                                      │
│[12]   Reference: Group Elements                                              │
│[13]   Reference: Group Properties                                            │
│[14]   Reference: Group Homomorphisms                                         │
│[15]   Reference: GroupHomomorphismByFunction                                 │
│[16]   Reference: Group Automorphisms                                         │
│[17]   Reference: Groups of Automorphisms                                     │
│[18]   Reference: Group Actions                                               │
│[19]   Reference: Group Products                                              │
│[20]   Reference: Group Libraries                                             │
│ > > >                                                                        │
└─────────────── [ <Up>/<Down> select, <Return> show, q quit ] ────────────────┘

You may use arrow keys to move up and down the list, and open help pages by pressing Return key. For this exercise, open Tutorial: Groups and Homomorphisms first. Note the navigation instructions at the bottom of the screen. Look at first two pages, then press q to return to the selection menu. Next, navigate to Reference: Groups and open it. Within two first pages you will find the function Group and mentioning of Order.

GAP manual comes in several formats: text is good to view in a terminal, PDF is good for printing and HTML (especially with MathJax support) is very efficient for exploring with a browser. If you are running GAP on your own computer, you can set the help viewer to the default browser. If you are running GAP on a remote machine, this (probably) will not work. (see ?WriteGapIniFile on how to make this setting permanent):


After that, invoke the help again, and see the difference!

Let’s now copy the following input from the first example of the GAP Reference manual chapter on groups. It shows how to create permutations, and assign values to variables. This is Reference: Groups. You can select it by typing ?11, where you replace 11 with whatever number appears before Reference: Groups on your machine.

If you are viewing the GAP documentation in a terminal, you might find it helpful to open two copies of GAP, one for reading documentation and one for writing code!

This guide shows how permutations in GAP are written in cycle notation, and also shows common functions which are used with groups. Also, in some places two semi-colons are used at the end of a line. This stops GAP from showing the result of a computation.


Next, let G be a group generated by a and b:

Group([ (1,2,3), (2,3,4) ])

We may explore some properties of G and its generators:

Size(G); IsAbelian(G); StructureDescription(G); Order(a);

Our next task is to find out how to obtain a list of G’s elements and their orders. Enter ?elements and explore the list of help topics. After inspection, the entry from the Tutorial does not seem relevant, but the entry from the Reference manual is. It also explains the difference between using AsSSortedList and AsList. So, this is the list of elements of G:

[ (), (2,3,4), (2,4,3), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2,3), (1,2,4), (1,3,2), (1,3,4),
  (1,3)(2,4), (1,4,2), (1,4,3), (1,4)(2,3) ]

The returned object is a list. We would like to assign it to a variable to explore and reuse. We forgot to do it when we were calculating it. Of course, we may use the command line history to restore the last command, edit it and call again. But instead, we will use last which is a special variable holding the last result returned by GAP:

[ (), (2,3,4), (2,4,3), (1,2)(3,4), (1,2,3), (1,2,4), (1,3,2), (1,3,4),
  (1,3)(2,4), (1,4,2), (1,4,3), (1,4)(2,3) ]

This is a list. Lists in GAP are indexed from 1. The following commands are (hopefully!) self-explanatory:

gap> elts[1]; elts[3]; Length(elts);

Lists are more than arrays

  • May contain holes or be empty

  • May dynamically change their length (with Add, Append or direct assigment)

  • Not required to contain objects of the same type

  • See more in GAP Tutorial: Lists and Records

Many functions in GAP refer to Sets. A set in GAP is just a list that happens to have no repetitions, no holes, and elements in increasing order. Here are some examples:

gap> IsSet([1,3,5]); IsSet([1,5,3]); IsSet([1,3,3]);

Now let us consider an interesting calculation – the average order of elements of G. There are many different ways to do this, we will consider a few of them here.

A for loop in GAP allows you to do something for every member of a collection. The general form of a for loop is:

for val in collection do
  <something with val>

For example, to find the average order of our group G we can do.

for g in elts do
  s := s + Order(g);

Actually, we can just directly loop over the elements of G (in general GAP will let you loop over most types of object). We have to switch to using Size instead of Length, as groups don’t have a length!

for g in G do
  s := s + Order(g);

There are other ways of looping. For example, we can instead loop over a range of integers, and accept elts like an array:

for i in [ 1 .. Length(elts) ] do
  s := s + Order( elts[i] );

However, often there are more compact ways of doing things. Here is a very short way:

Sum( List( elts, Order ) ) / Length( elts );

Let’s break this last part down:

Which approach is best?

Compare these approaches. Which one would you prefer to use?

GAP has very helpful list manipulation tools. We will now show a few more examples.

Sometimes, GAP does not have the exact function we want. For example, NrMovedPoints gives the number of moved points of a permutation, but what if we want to find all permutations which move 4 points? This is where GAP’s arrow notation comes in. g -> e makes a new function which takes one argument g, and returns the value of the expression e. Here are some examples:

Filtered( elts, g -> NrMovedPoints(g) = 4 );
[ (1,2)(3,4), (1,3)(2,4), (1,4)(2,3) ]
First( elts, g -> (1,2)^g = (2,3) );

Let’s check this (remember that in GAP permutations are multiplied from left to right!):

ForAll( elts, g -> 1^g <> 2 );
ForAny( elts, g -> NrMovedPoints(g) = 2 );

Use list operations to select from elts the stabiliser of the point 2 and the centraliser of the permutation (1,2)

  • Filtered( elts, g -> 2^g = 2 );

  • Filtered( elts, g -> (1,2)^g = (1,2) );

Key Points

  • Remember that GAP is case-sensitive!

  • Do not panic if you see Error, Variable: 'FuncName' must have a value.

  • Care about names of variables and functions.

  • Use command line editing.

  • Use autocompletion instead of typing names of functions and variables in full.

  • Use ? and ?? to view help pages.

  • Set the default help format to HTML using SetHelpViewer.

  • Use the LogTo function to save all GAP input and output into a text file.

  • If calculation takes too long, press -C to interrupt it.

  • Read ‘A First Session with GAP’ from the GAP Tutorial.