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# Programming your GPU using CuPy

## Overview

Teaching: 0 min
Exercises: 0 min
Questions
• How can I copy my data to the GPU?

• How can I do a calculation on a GPU?

• How can I copy the result back to my computer?

Objectives
• Be able to indicate if an array, represented by a variable in an iPython shell, is stored in host or device memory.

• Be able to copy the contents of this array from host to device memory and vice versa.

• Be able to select the appropriate function to either convolve an image using either CPU or GPU compute power.

• Be able to quickly estimate the speed benefits for a simple calculation by moving it from the CPU to the GPU.

# Introduction to CuPy

CuPy is a GPU array library that implements a subset of the NumPy and SciPy interfaces. This makes it a very convenient tool to use the compute power of GPUs for people that have some experience with NumPy, without the need to write code in a GPU programming language such as CUDA, OpenCL, or HIP.

# Convolution in Python

We start by generating an artificial “image” on the host using Python and NumPy; the host is the CPU on the laptop, desktop, or cluster node you are using right now, and from now on we may use host to refer to the CPU and device to refer to the GPU. The image will be all zeros, except for isolated pixels with value one, on a regular grid. We will convolve it with a Gaussian and inspect the result. We will also record the time it takes to execute this convolution on the host.

We can interactively write and executed the code in an iPython shell or a Jupyter notebook.

import numpy as np

# Construct a subimage with all zeros and a single one in the middle
primary_unit = np.zeros((16, 16))
primary_unit[8, 8] = 1

# Now duplicate this subimage many times to construct a larger image
deltas = np.tile(primary_unit, (128, 128))
print(deltas.shape)


The final print should show that you have indeed built a large image.

Out: (2048, 2048)


To get a feeling of how the whole image looks like, we can display the top-left corner of it.

import pylab as pyl

# Display the image
# You can zoom in using the menu in the window that will appear
pyl.imshow(deltas[0:32, 0:32])
pyl.show()


The result of this should be four times the content of primary_unit.

### Background

The computation we want to perform on this image is a convolution, once on the host and once on the device so we can compare the results and execution times. In computer vision applications, convolutions are often used to filter images and if you want to know more about them, we encourage you to check out this github repository by Vincent Dumoulin and Francesco Visin with some great animations. We have already seen that we can think of an image as a matrix of color values, when we convolve that image with a particular filter, we generate a new matrix with different color values. An example of convolution can be seen in the figure below (illustration by Michael Plotke, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons). In our example, we will convolve our image with a 2D Gaussian function shown below:

$$G(x,y) = \frac{1}{2\pi \sigma^2} e^{-\frac{x^2 + y^2}{2 \sigma^2}}$$

Where x and y are the “coordinates in our matrix, i.e. our row and columns. $\sigma$ controls the width of the Gaussian distribution. Convolving images with 2D Gaussian funcitons will change the value of each pixel to be a weighted average of the pixels around it, thereby “smoothing” the image. Convolving images with a Gaussian function denoises the image, which is often required in edge-detection since most algorithms to do this are sensitive to noise.

# Convolution on the CPU Using SciPy

Let us first construct the Gaussian, and then display it. Remember that at this point we are still doing everything with standard Python, and not using the GPU yet.

x, y = np.meshgrid(np.linspace(-2, 2, 15), np.linspace(-2, 2, 15))
dst = np.sqrt(x*x + y*y)
sigma = 1
muu = 0.000
gauss = np.exp(-((dst-muu)**2/(2.0 * sigma**2)))
pyl.imshow(gauss)
pyl.show()


This should show you a symmetrical two-dimensional Gaussian. Now we are ready to do the convolution on the host. We do not have to write this convolution function ourselves, as it is very conveniently provided by SciPy. Let us also record the time it takes to perform this convolution and inspect the top left corner of the convolved image.

from scipy.signal import convolve2d as convolve2d_cpu

convolved_image_using_CPU = convolve2d_cpu(deltas, gauss)
%timeit convolve2d_cpu(deltas, gauss)
pyl.imshow(convolved_image_using_CPU[0:32, 0;32])
pyl.show()


Obviously, the time to perform this convolution will depend very much on the power of your CPU, but I expect you to find that it takes a couple of seconds.

1 loop, best of 5: 2.52 s per loop


When you display the corner of the image, you can see that the “ones” surrounded by zeros have actually been blurred by a Gaussian, so we end up with a regular grid of Gaussians.

# Convolution on the GPU Using CuPy

This is part of a lesson on GPU programming, so let us use the GPU. Although there is a physical connection - i.e. a cable - between the CPU and the GPU, they do not share the same memory space. TODO add an image to show CPU-GPU connection. This means that an array created from e.g. an iPython shell using NumPy is physically located into the main memory of the host, and therefore available for the CPU but not the GPU. It is not yet present in GPU memory, which means that we need to copy our data, the input image and the convolving function to the GPU, before we can execute any code on it. In practice, we have the arrays deltas and gauss in the host’s RAM, and we need to copy them to GPU memory using CuPy.

import cupy as cp

deltas_gpu = cp.asarray(deltas)
gauss_gpu = cp.asarray(gauss)


Now it is time to do the convolution on the GPU. SciPy does not offer functions that can use the GPU, so we need to import the convolution function from another library, called cupyx; cupyx.scipy contains a subset of all SciPy routines. You will see that the GPU convolution function from the cupyx library looks very much like the convolution function from SciPy we used previously. In general, NumPy and CuPy look very similar, as well as the SciPy and cupyx libraries, and this is on purpose to facilitate the use of the GPU by programmers that are already familiar with NumPy and SciPy. Let us again record the time to execute the convolution, so that we can compare it with the time it took on the host.

from cupyx.scipy.signal import convolve2d as convolve2d_gpu

convolved_image_using_GPU = convolve2d_gpu(deltas_gpu, gauss_gpu)
%timeit convolve2d_gpu(deltas_gpu, gauss_gpu)


Similar to what we had previously on the host, the execution time of the GPU convolution will depend very much on the GPU used, but I expect you to find it will take about 10ms. This is what I got on a TITAN X (Pascal) GPU:

1000 loops, best of 5: 20.2 ms per loop


This is a lot faster than on the host, a performance improvement, or speedup, of 125 times. Impressive!

## Challenge: Try a shortcut: convolution on the GPU without CuPy

Try to convolve the Numpy array deltas with the Numpy array gauss directly on the GPU, so without using CuPy arrays. If we succeed, this should save us the time and effort of transferring deltas and gauss to the GPU.

## Solution

We can again use the GPU convolution function from the cupyx library: convolve2d_gpu and use deltas and gauss as input.

convolve2d_gpu(deltas, gauss)


However, this gives a long error message with this last line:

TypeError: Unsupported type <class 'numpy.ndarray'>


It is unfortunately not possible to access Numpy arrays from the GPU directly. Numpy arrays exist in the Random Access Memory (RAM) of the host and not in GPU memory. These types of memory are not united, but transfers are possible.

# Compare the results. Copy the convolved image from the device back to the host

To check that we actually computed the same output on the host and the device we can compare the two output arrays convolved_image_using_GPU and convolved_image_using_CPU.

np.allclose(convolved_image_using_GPU, convolved_image_using_CPU)


As you may expect, the result of the comparison is positive, and in fact we computed the same results on the host and the device.

array(True)


## Challenge: Fairer runtime comparison CPU vs. GPU

Compute the CPU vs GPU speedup while taking into account the transfers of data to the GPU and back. You should now find a lower speedup from taking the overhead of the transfer of arrays into account. Hint: To copy a CuPy array back to the host (CPU), use cp.asnumpy().

## Solution

For timing, it is most convenient to define a function that completes all the steps.

def transfer_compute_transferback():
deltas_gpu = cp.asarray(deltas)
gauss_gpu = cp.asarray(gauss)
convolved_image_using_GPU = convolve2d_gpu(deltas_gpu, gauss_gpu)
convolved_image_using_GPU_copied_to_host = cp.asnumpy(convolved_image_using_GPU)

%timeit transfer_compute_transferback()

10 loops, best of 5: 35.1 ms per loop


This means that our speedup has decreased from 2520 ms/20.2 ms = 125 to 2520 ms/35.1 ms = 72. This is still a significant speedup of our computations and adequately takes account of additional data transfers.

# A shortcut: performing Numpy routines on the GPU.

We saw above that we cannot execute routines from the “cupyx” library directly on Numpy arrays. In fact we need to first transfer the data from host to device memory. Vice versa, if we try to execute a regular Scipy routine (i.e. designed to run the CPU) on a CuPy array, we will also encounter an error. Try the following:

convolve2d_cpu(deltas_gpu, gauss_gpu)


This results in

......
......
......
TypeError: Implicit conversion to a NumPy array is not allowed. Please use .get() to construct a NumPy array explicitly.


So Scipy routines cannot have CuPy arrays as input. We can, however, execute a simpler command that does not require Scipy. Instead of 2D convolution, we can do 1D convolution. For that we can use a Numpy routine instead of a Scipy routine. The “convolve” routine from Numpy performs linear (1D) convolution. To generate some input for a linear convolution, we can flatten our image from 2D to 1D (using ravel()), but we also need a 1D kernel. For the latter we will take the diagonal elements of our 2D Gaussian kernel. Try the following three instructions for linear convolution on the CPU:

deltas_1d = deltas.ravel()
gauss_1d = gauss.diagonal()
%timeit np.convolve(deltas_1d, gauss_1d)


You could arrive at something similar to this timing result:

104 ms ± 32.9 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 10 loops each)


We have performed a regular linear convolution using our CPU. Now let us try something bold. We will transfer the 1D arrays to the GPU and use the Numpy (!) routine to do the convolution. Again, we have to issue three commands:

deltas_1d_gpu = cp.asarray(deltas_1d)
gauss_1d_gpu = cp.asarray(gauss_1d)
%timeit np.convolve(deltas_1d_gpu, gauss_1d_gpu)


You may be surprised that we can issue these commands without error. Contrary to Scipy routines, Numpy accepts CuPy arrays, i.e. arrays that exist in GPU memory, as input. Here you can find some background on why Numpy routines can handle CuPy arrays.

Also, remember the np.allclose command above? With a Numpy and a CuPy array as input. That worked for the same reason.

The linear convolution is actually performed on the GPU, which is shown by a nice speedup:

731 µs ± 106 µs per loop (mean ± std. dev. of 7 runs, 1 loop each)


So this implies a speedup of a factor 104/0.731 = 142. Impressive.