This lesson is in the early stages of development (Alpha version)

Scientific reproducibility: What is it for?


Teaching: 15 min
Exercises: 5 min
  • What is reproducible research?

  • How can RStudio help research to be more reproducible?

  • What are the benefits of using RStudio for writing academic essays and papers?

  • Understand what scientific reproducibility entails.

  • Identify the benefits of using RStudio to create research reports.

  • Understand how RStudio supports Open Science principles.

  • Learn how RStudio can help one’s research.


Let’s get into breakout rooms and discuss: What is reproducible research for you? Have you ever experienced issues while trying to reproduce someone else’s study or even your own research?

Reproducible studies allow other researchers to perform the same processes and analyses to produce an identical result as the first initial researcher. Original researchers have to make available the study’s associated data, documentation, and code pipelines and workflows in a way that is sufficiently self-explanatory and well-documented so that independent investigators can reproduce/recreate the original study under the same conditions, using identical materials and procedures, and ultimately achieve consistent results and render equal outcomes. Original investigators, therefore, must produce rich and detailed documentation for themselves and others. This includes fully specifying both in human-readable and computer-executable ways all steps taken in the study.

The importance of Reproducibility in Research

PhD Comics cartoon

Source: Comic number 1869 from PhD Comics Copyrighted artwork by Jorge Cham.

Discussion: A scary anecdote

According to the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)subcommittee on replicability in science (2015):

Science should routinely evaluate the reproducibility of findings that enjoy a prominent role in the published literature. To make reproduction possible, efficient, and informative, researchers should sufficiently document the details of the procedures used to collect data, to convert observations into analyzable data, and to perform data analysis.

Reproducibility refers to the ability of a researcher to duplicate the results of a prior study using the same materials as were used by the original investigator. That is, a second researcher might use the same raw data to build the same analysis files and implement the same statistical analysis in an attempt to yield the same results. Reproducibility is a minimum necessary condition for a finding to be considered rigorous, believable and informative.

Why all the talk about reproducible research?

A 2016 survey in Nature revealed that irreproducible experiments are a problem across all domains of science:

Nature Report - 2016

Source: Baker, M. 1,500 scientists lift the lid on reproducibility. Nature 533, 452–454 (2016).

Factors behind irreproducible research

Science is not a miracle

Source: Then a Miracle Occurs. Copyrighted artwork by Sydney Harris Inc.

Reproducible, replicable, robust, generalizable

While reproducibility is the minimum requirement and can be solved with “good enough” computational practices, replicability/robustness/generalizability of scientific findings are an even greater concern involving research misconduct, questionable research practices (p-hacking, HARKing, cherry-picking), sloppy methods, and other conscious and unconscious biases.

How science should be

Source: This image was created by Scriberia for The Turing Way community DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3 332807

If contributing to science and other researchers seems not to be compelling enough, here are 5 selfish reasons to work reproducibly according to Markowetz (2015):

When do you need to worry about reproducibility?

Let’s assume that I have convinced you that reproducibility and transparency are in your own best interest. Then what is the best time to worry about it?

From day one, and throughout the whole research life cycle! Before you start the project because you might have to learn tools like R or Git. While you do the analysis because if you wait too long you might lose a lot of time trying to remember what you did two months ago. When you write the paper because you want your numbers, tables, and figures to be up-to-date. When you co-author a paper, because you want to make sure that the analyses presented in a paper with your name on are sound. When you review a paper, because you can’t judge the results if you don’t know how the authors got there.

Levels of Reproducibility

A published article is like the top of a pyramid, meaning that a reproducible paper/report rests on multiple levels that each contributes to its reproducibility.

Advantages of using RStudio for your project

RStudio is an integrated development environment (IDE) for R and Python. It includes a console, syntax-highlighting editor that supports direct code execution, as well as tools for plotting, history, debugging, collaboration, and workspace management. It is a powerful tool which supports research by weaving the principles of reproducibility throughout the entire research lifecycle, from data gathering to the statistical analysis, presentation and publication of results.

It is free and open-source

Reproducibility becomes more difficult and opaque when results rely on proprietary software. Unless research code is open sourced, reproducing results on different software/hardware configurations is impossible. Rstudio is dedicated to sustainable investment in free and open-source software for data science.

It is designed to make it easy to write and reuse code

As soon as you create a new script, the windows within your RStudio session adjust automatically so you can see both your script and the results in your console when you run your syntax. It also offers the ability to call up potential syntax options while you are writing just by using the tab key.

Makes it convenient to view and interact with the objects stored in your environment

RStudio has a very useful “Environment” window available which shows all of the objects that you have stored, including data; scalars, vectors, and matrices; model outputs; etc., along with a summary of the information that is stored in those objects.

Makes it easy to set your working directory and access files on your computer

With RStudio, you can navigate to folders on your computer in the “Files” window, view any files you have in that folder, and set that folder as the working directory.

Integrates with Collaboration and Publishing Tools

Another great advantage of using Rstudio for your R project is that the platform integrates with GitHub. Once you connect RStudio with your GitHub account a remote repo becomes the “upstream” remote for your local repo. In essence, it enables you push and pull commits to GitHub allowing more seamless collaboration and more effective version control. RStudio also connects with Rpubs for easy R project web publishing.

Creates documents using R Markdown

R Markdown is a variant of Markdown, a system for writing simple, readable text that is easily converted to html which allows you to write using an easy-to-read, easy-to-write plain text format.

R Markdown belongs to the field of literate programming which is about weaving text and source code into a single document to make it easy to create reproducible web-based reports. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax for authoring HTML, PDF, and MS Word documents and much, much more. R Markdown provides the flexibility of Markdown with the implementation of R input and output. For more details on using R Markdown check

The idea of literate programming shines some light on this dark area of science. This is an idea from Donald Knuth where you combine your text with your code output to create a document. This is a blend of your literature (text), and your programming (code), to create something that you can read from top to bottom. Imagine your paper - the introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion, and all the bits of code that make each section. With R Markdown, you can see all the pieces of your data analysis altogether.

You can include both text and code to execute. It is a convenient tool for reproducible and dynamic reports with R! With R Markdown, you are able to:

  1. Keep an eye on text (the paper) AND the source code. These computational steps are essential to ensure computational reproducibility.
  2. Conduct the entire analysis pipeline in an R Markdown document: data (pre-)processing, analysis, outputs, visualization.
  3. Apply a formatting syntax that is part of the R ecosystem and supports LaTeX.
  4. Combine text written in Markdown and source code written in R (and other languages).
  5. Easily share R Markdown documents with colleagues, as supplemental material, or as the paper under review. Thanks to the package knitr, others can execute the document with a single click and receive, for example, HTML or PDF renderings.
  6. Get figures automatically updated if you change the underlying parameters in the code. The error-prone task of exporting figures and uploading the right figure version to another platform is thus not needed anymore.
  7. Since Markdown is a text-based format, you can also use versioning control with Git.
  8. If you do not make any changes to the document after creating the output document, you can be sure that the paper was executable at least at the time of submission.
  9. Refer to the corresponding code lines in the methodology section making it unnecessary to use pseudocode, high-level textual descriptions, or just too many words to describe the computational analysis.
  10. Use packages such as rticles to use templates from publishers and create submission-ready documents.

Some Real-world Applications

Finally, three real-world examples that motivated the authors of this lesson to value and use R Markdown:

  1. Greg Janee quickly put together a simple but compelling R Markdown document describing his survey results. The ease with which he created his plots is a testament to the power of R as a data analysis environment, but the ease with which he was able to publish a page on the web is a testament to R Markdown and Github as a publishing environment. Notice that he did not have to: create plots in a tool and then export the plots as images; write any HTML; embed plot images in HTML; or create a site under Wordpress or other web hosting service. Instead, he directly published his R code as he wrote it, and using GitHub, made it appear on the web with a button click.

  2. One of us wanted to create a short document that included some math formulas. The LaTeX document preparation can be used for this, but it is difficult to use and is overkill for just a few formulas in otherwise plain text. R Markdown lets you use just the best part of LaTeX—math formatting—while letting you write your text in a user-friendly way.

  3. In this lesson we will be constructing a scientific paper that is based on an actual Nature publication and attendant survey and data. In trying to recreate the plots the original authors created, we found it difficult and time-consuming to figure out exactly how the authors created their plots. Out of the many columns in their data, many with similar-sounding names, which did they use? How did they handle missing data? Exactly what operations did they perform to compute aggregate values? How much easier it would have been if they had published the code they used along with their paper. R Markdown allows you to do this.

Our goal is that by the end of this workshop you will be able to create a reproducible report. This template is a short and adapted version of the data paper referenced below:

Nitsch, F. J., Sellitto, M., & Kalenscher, T. (2021). Trier social stress test and food-choice: Behavioral, self-report & hormonal data. Data in brief, 37, 107245.

This template is used exclusively for instruction purposes with permission from the authors.

Key Points

  • Reproducible research is key for scientific advancement.

  • RStudio can help you to organize, have better control over and produce reproducible research.